Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a variety of reasons: as self-defense, military and law enforcement applications; as competition, physical fitness, mental and spiritual development; as well as entertainment and the preservation of a nation’s intangible cultural heritage.
Although the term martial art has become associated with the fighting arts of eastern Asia, it originally referred to the combat systems of Europe as early as the 1550s. The term is derived from Latin, and means “arts of Mars”, the Roman god of war. Some authors have argued that fighting arts or fighting systems would be more appropriate on the basis that many martial arts were never “martial” in the sense of being used or created by professional warriors.
Unarmed martial arts can be broadly grouped into focusing on strikes, those focusing on grappling and those that cover both fields, often described as hybrid martial arts.
Punching: Boxing, Wing Chun
Kicking: Capoeira, Savate, Taekwondo
Others using strikes: Karate, Muay Thai, Sanshou
Throwing: Hapkido, Judo, Sumo, Wrestling
Joint lock/Chokeholds/Submission holds: Hapkido, Jujutsu, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Sambo
Pinning Techniques: Judo, Wrestling